The Team Sky rider came fifth in stage 15's mountain finish in the Sierra Nevada after a triple whammy of climbs, 47 seconds behind Colombian stage victor Miguel Angel Lopez.
Froome countered Vincenzo Nibali's move on the final climb and widened his advantage over him by six seconds.
Colombian Miguel Angel Lopez was 27 seconds back in second with Nibali snatching third from Froome as they both finished 31 seconds behind Majka.More news: Sloane Stephens steps into US Open quarterfinals
Russia's Ilnur Zakarin attacked in the final kilometre to take second, 36 seconds back, and also climb ahead of Wilco Kelderman into third overall.
"We've seen everything in this Vuelta: crashes, attacks, I think I can expect everything next week", he added.
The Italian took his third win of the Vuelta so far, tightening his claws into a Green Jersey that now looks very likely to be his when the field comes into Spain on the 10th September.More news: Moscow to inform Washington of its reaction to consulate closure - Lavrov
Polish rider Rafal Majka took the stage by an impressive margin of 27 seconds, picking up his first win at La Vuelta to go with three stage victories at the Tour de France, where he was King of the Mountains in 2014 and previous year.
On one of the brief sections of respite, Stage 5 victor Alexey Lutsenko attacked and slipped the field, although he did the same with his gears at just the wrong time, whilst the main group was now about 30 thanks to the relentless work on the front of Quick-Step's aforementioned riders, with a split between the two sections of the peloton.
Lopez, a 23-year-old rider for Astana, claimed his first grand tour win on Wednesday, when he won a similarly tough mountain stage finishing at the Calar Alto summit. I'm going to try to win another victory, " he promised. "It's because of them that I'm still in the red jersey". "I'm really happy with it and looking forward to the time trial".More news: Angry movie for angry times: George Clooney defines latest directorial 'Suburbicon'
The riders of the 2017 Vuelta will now enjoy their second rest day before the race continues on Tuesday.
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