The rest of the 10-man shortlist is made up of two more French World Cup winners (Antoine Griezmann and Raphael Varane), Belgian duo Eden Hazard and Kevin de Bruyne, Liverpool's Egyptian forward Mohamed Salah and English striker Harry Kane.
The number 7 left the Spanish giants in the summer after nine years at the club, joining Italian champions Juventus in a deal worth €100 million (US$117 million).
Ronaldo and Messi at the Best FIFA Awards.
Luka Modric played a pivotal role in that latter triumph before inspiring Croatia to their first-ever World Cup final appearance.
World Cup stars Luka Modric and Kylian Mbappe both made the list
Who do you think is the GOAT?
Mbappe told France Football when asked to pick out the likely winners: "For the favorites, I will say Cristiano Ronaldo, Luka Modric, Raphael Varane. and me".
Okay, it's not quite the Champions League - PSG lost to champions Real Madrid in the last-16 - but Mbappe did the double with Paris Saint-Germain in France.More news: In election-charged Pakistan, Mahathir makes an 'appearance'
Brazil's Marta is the only player who has been on the podium before that could win.
The other five candidates for the award were Massimiliano Allegri (Juventus), Pep Guardiola (Manchester City), Juergen Klopp (Liverpool), Diego Simeone (Atletico Madrid) and Ernesto Valverde (Barcelona).
However, Ronaldo will still be confident of making it three in a row, as he once again finished top scorer in the Champions League.
Nominees for Best FIFA Women's Coach and Player were also announced on Tuesday.More news: Ireland beat Australia to claim Challenge Trophy at Rugby World Cup Sevens
The French side's coach Reynald Pedros could stop last year's victor, Netherlands national team coach Sarina Wiegman, from retaining her title. The captains and head coaches of all national teams account for another 25 per cent each while the final vote comes from a panel of 200 journalists from around the world.
Players, coaches, fans and the media will vote for the winners, with the victor to be announced at a London ceremony on September 24.More news: Israel shoots down Syrian fighter jet after alleged Golan Heights border breach
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